Wednesday, May 20, 2020
INTRODUCTION My topic says Ã¢â¬Å"effects of music on studying or memoryÃ¢â¬ . We know that music is played all around the world or we can say in every form of life. My topic tells us about the music that how it is defined. Apart from that, in the next section, I will be explaining the types or categories of music. Some of the types of music are country music, electronic music and many more. Also, I have given description about the type of music and when it is preferred. Furthermore, I am going to explain my readers about my main research that is Ã¢â¬Å" effects of music on studying or memory. The main purpose for my research work is that the readers who are going to read my report or I can say who is interested in field of music can get a lot of information and knowledge from my research work so that if anybody wants to pursue a career in music sector can gain knowledge from my research. In the first section of my report work, I am going to explain the readers how music is described. In the next section, I am going to explain the classification of music. Further in the next section, I am going to give readers the effects of music on memory or studying with the help of references in my topic. In the last paragraph, I am going to conclusion for my research work. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY For my research work, I have used most of my sources from google. These sources from google tells me about the music and itÃ¢â¬â¢s classification. For my other section of work, I have used NAIT library and google forShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Music On Memory And Studying1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEFFECTS OF MUSIC ON STUDYING OR MEMORY Arshdeep Singh Ms. Jackie Quantz June 8, 2016 Arshdeep Singh 9023-105 A Avenue NW June 8, 2016 Ms. Jackie Quantz Business Communications Instructor Northern Alberta Institute of Technology 11762 Ã¢â¬â 106 Street NW Edmonton, AB T5G 2R1 Dear Ms. Quantz: The report below tells us about the information regarding music and itÃ¢â¬â¢s classification. The report also describes about the effects of music on memory and studying. The main purposeRead MoreThe Effects Of Music On Memory And Studying1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlberta Institute of Technology 11762 Ã¢â¬â 106 Street NW Edmonton, AB T5G 2R1 Dear Ms. Quantz: The report below tells us about the information regarding music and itÃ¢â¬â¢s classification. The report also describes about the effects of music on memory and studying. The main purpose of my report is that if anybody interested in opting a career in music field can easily get a lot of information from my research work which will clear all itÃ¢â¬â¢s doubts. For my research work, I have used google for half ofRead MoreEffects Of Music On Memory And Studying1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON STUDYING OR MEMORY Arshdeep Singh Ms. Jackie Quantz June 8, 2016 Arshdeep Singh 9023-105 A Avenue NW Edmonton, Alberta T6T0M1 June 8, 2016 Ms. Jackie Quantz Business Communications Instructor Northern Alberta Institute of Technology 11762 Ã¢â¬â 106 Street NW Edmonton, AB T5G 2R1 Dear Ms. Quantz: The report below tells us about the information regarding music and itÃ¢â¬â¢s classification. The report also describes about the effects of music on memory andRead MoreHow Does Playing Music While Studying Relate to College Students Gpa?1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract Students have the ability to play music while they are studying. Studies have shown mixed results when it comes to listening to music while studying. This present study examines the differences in music listening habits while studying of students with low and high GPAs. Students with low GPAs did not listen to music more than students with high GPAs while studying. However, when listening to music while reading was examined, there was a difference between low and high GPA studentsRead MoreMusic Vs. Classical Music916 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesClassical Music How often do you listen to music while youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying to try to make the task more entertaining? Students regularly listen to music while studying as a way to help them stay engaged in studying (Beentjes, Koolstra, van der Voort, 1996). Well, based on what music you listen to, you may actually be hindering yourself rather than helping. When students listen to classical music while they are studying it has many beneficial effects. It has positive body influences, it activatesRead MoreShort Note On Short Term Memory Essay1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmemorize a certain amount of information in a limited period of time, students often use memory techniques in order to store a given information. Most studies have suggested; students resort to using short-memory as a tool in a last minute exam/quiz study session. Short-term memory is defined as a finite amount of information that can be temporarily stored and retrieved for up to 20 seconds. Short-term memory can also hold up to nin e groups of stimuli in a given information (Weiten, Stalling, WasdenRead MoreBest Ways To Study Essay804 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Three Best Ways to Study For many students studying for an exam or a test can be very stressful. For a lot of them studying is very hard because sometimes most of the materials they study, they dont remember on the actual test or exam. However there are more than one way to study and most theses studying methods can be very helpful and very reliable. A Lot of students tend to cram all the studying two or the night before the test and according to UCLA professor of psychiatry Andrew J. FuligniRead MoreThe Effects Of Listening On Different Types Of Music1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTitle: Effects of listening to different types of music one week prior to midterm exam on studentÃ¢â¬â¢s result in a randomized classroom clinical trial Introduction: Dating back to 1973 was one of the earliest studies done on music and memory. The study done by Mowsesian and Heyer involves 15 year old students listening to music while taking their exam. The researchers found out that music does not have a huge impact on studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance (Hallam, Price, Katsarou, 2002). In contrast, there isRead MoreEffective Study Methods1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmethods, while some do not. Not one person studies exactly the same way. In terms of psychology, there are various concepts of learning and memory that are involved in the way a person studies. I, for one, am a huge believer in simply reading over the given study materials, and I end up getting satisfactory grades. Over the years, I have found methods of studying that work for me, and methods that do not work. These methods are explained and provided with proper examples from the textbook provided inRead MoreMusic, Memories, And The Brain Essay844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen music plays as s ignificant of a role in American society as it does today, many researchers focus their work on understanding the effects of music on the brain. In the podcast entitled Music, Memories, and the Brain, Steve Mencher interviews Dr. Petr Janata to find out more about how music is associated with human memories. Janata works in the psychology department at the University of California, in Davis, California. JanataÃ¢â¬â¢s research suggests that humans unintentionally store and create a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Steven Huynh PHIL 150 Humans do not experience life and events in a purely objective manner. To fully understand the many facets of this claim and its meaning, we must Ã¢â¬Å"break downÃ¢â¬ the sentence and know of each wordÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning. Humans refer to people; it references human beings. While people live, they experience life and events. In other words, they act and react, causing and participating in events, and learning from or ignoring things that happen his or her life; they undergo events in life. To be objective is to be without bias, to be neutral, to be impartial, to be without influence, and so on. As such, a Ã¢â¬Å"purely objective mannerÃ¢â¬ would be describing something done in a way not influenced by personal feelings and opinions andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Over the internet, a picture of a dress was circulated. Many saw the dress and black and blue, while others saw the dress and white and gold. It was the same dress, the same picture for those parties who looked at it, and yet there was a divide in what people saw. A human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of sight can mislead them seeing it as one color while in actuality it was another; the dress was actually blue and black. This is just one sense applied to a situation, others can mislead and affect our experiences as well. If the temperature in a particular area was registered as cooler in one month than the month before, that would be an objective detail. Yet people in the area may still experience stuffy heat. Our senses shape our experiences and are able to divert them from an objective view. (3) The third is our past experiences. Our past affects our future. It is a common saying that people learn from their mistakes, and that is very widely applicable. If a human were to eat at a certain restaurant and come out of it feeling unwell and sick, they would not go back to the restaurant. If a person were to go hiking and had fallen down a hill receiving many injuries, they may not try to hike a sec ond time. A person may not want to go near a past school they studied at due to inexorable situations experienced. And yet if the restaurant had improved its health regulations and bettered their food or if the school improved its system over the years, those people still wouldShow MoreRelatedThe Nothingness Of Personality By Jorge Luis Borges1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmemories is mistakenÃ¢â¬ (1). However, I would argue that memories do in fact play a substantial role in developing human personalities, and that without memories, our self and personality is incomplete. While Borges is correct in stating that our memories are fleeting and that one never completely remembers an event in its entirety, the feelings and emotions accompanying such event impact the formation of our identities. While life events certainly are important, the lasting effect of the memories areRead MoreEssay on Reasearch on Free Will and Determinism720 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescontrol; we have the ability to m ake our own choices. Others might say itÃ¢â¬â¢s in our biological nature to do the things we do; itÃ¢â¬â¢s beyond our control. Basically our life experiences and choices are already pre determined and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing we can do to change it. Many philosophers have made very strong arguments that support both sides. In life we are constantly questioning why people act the way they do. A determinist would say that freedom of choice couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t always be possible because our actions areRead MoreThe View Of Human Nature1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesView of Human Nature Human nature is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the general psychological characteristics, feelings, and behavioral traits of humankind, regarded as shared by all humansÃ¢â¬ (Definition of human nature, n.d.). As with the basic philosophies of Person-Centered, I too have a positive view of human mature. Life has meaning; everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is important and plays a vital role in the lives of others and the environment. Although every individual have different physical characteristics, live in differentRead MoreBilly Pilgrim: Sane or Insane? Essay1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSlaughterHouse-Five is a book about a man named Billy Pilgrim who is stuck in time, and constantly travels throughout different events in his life. Billy accepts different values and sees traumatic and morbid events differently than others. Billy accepts a way of life that is not perceivable to other humans. Many would argue that BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences make him insane, but BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences with the Tralfamador ians actually allows him to preserve his sanity, and stay a very intelligent man. Many argue thatRead MoreJohn Chaffee s Philosophy Textbook1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswould answer Ã¢â¬Å"yes, of courseÃ¢â¬ to a question like this that seems cut and dry but in philosophy, we have to be willing to look deeper into the question being asked. Dive in with an open mind and ask yourself whether or not the choices you make in your life are truly yours or are they governed by outside forces out of your control. People are entitled to their own opinions and thoughts (as we all know). Philosophers thought about whether or not we are actually free and have their own ideas and concepts;Read MoreThe Influence of History on the Present and the Future of Human Beings1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory on the Present Life, and the Future of Human beings The past is not entirely part of the present and the past. It happened then, not now and ignoring it is never possible. The fact that it happened leaves no choice to forget it. Past events could influence the present and the future, but unlike the past, the future is yet to happen. Events in the past do not have to change the future. Doing future events keenly may avoid a repeat of the past. Narrating, past events and recalling them stopsRead MoreExistence After Physical Death Considered1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExistence After Physical Death Considered To address the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Is human survival of a physical death an intelligible or defensible theory?Ã¢â¬ in the affirmative, requires postulating that: 1) The definition of human includes the characteristic of a unique soul or spirit associated with each physical human body and, 2) Miracles, events unexplained by menÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and natural laws, can occur and, 3) A substance dualist philosophy that the body including the brain is physical matter but the mindRead MoreTorture : Torture By Jean Amery1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesor practice of inflicting severe pain on someone as a punishment or to force them to do or say something, or for the pleasure of the person inflicting the pain. After reading Ã¢â¬Å"TortureÃ¢â¬ by Holocaust survivor, Jean Amery, it is clear that the above definition of torture does not provide an honest connotative definition for the act and effects of torture. Amery speaks about torture from his own personal experiences in both Auschwitz and Buchenwald, providing witness to the dehumanization of Jews. InRead MoreLoss Of Innocence Essay (Grade Ten Advanced Placement, Non-Revised Version)1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOften, we as humans tend to separate ourselves from stories and myths. If a story is fictitious, we immediately dismiss any possibility of relating and learning from it. However, some archetypal events and th emes observed in literature may be far more real than we wish to admit. The loss of innocence is one such archetype. Despite having broad definition, the effects of the loss of innocence are narrow. Commonly, an innocent or ignorant individual experiences an event or realization causing a shiftRead MoreHume on Custom Habit784 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFirst Paper Assignment; Hume on Customs and Habits Ã¢â¬Å"Custom, then, is the great guide of human life. It is that principle alone which renders our experience useful to us, and makes us expect, for the future, a similar train of events with those which have appeared in the past. Without the influence of custom, we should be entirely ignorant of every matter of fact beyond what is immediately present to the memory and senses. We should never know how to adjust means to ends, or to employ our natural
Question: Discuss about the Recruitment and HRM in Google. Answer: Introduction Google is well known all across the globe. It is known for its unique work culture. The company believes in keeping the work environment free and stress relieving for their employees. Just by taking a look inside the building it is evident that the complex looks more like a playground than any place of work, moreover, that of such a huge corporate giant like Google. Their main aim is to keep their employees happy and keep up the standards of productivity at the same time. They always look for new employees who can bring innovation and life experiences to the teams. Google as an organization Google is one of the best known and widely recognized companies all around the globe. What started as a small student project by two Stanford University students, Larry Page and Sergey Brin in the year 1996 has now become the most widely used search engine on the internet. It also has several innovative applications like Gmail, Picasa, Google maps etc. Their main motive is to gather all the information and data available about everything around the globe and make it easily accessible to all the people living in different corners of the world. It is unique in the way in which it treats its users (Sabat, 2016). They pay very much importance on the satisfaction level of the users and it is for this reason that they have also resisted the pop up as they thought it to be too annoying for the users and they also made it sure that their advertisements come only as sponsored links. They mainly aim at improving the user experience. Google as an employer It is a company that is not partaking within the rat race of fame and money making, unlike the several other companies. They put the happiness and satisfaction of their employees before everything as they believe that a happy employee can give a better and improved product both in terms of quality and quantity (Peters, Jackson, Daly 2014). Allowing generous parental leave policies, savings after retirements, death benefits etc are all parts of their employee benefit programs and schemes. Employees can even bring their families to work in some instances. Google is involved in CSR activities as well; they are involved in works of charity where they give good amounts of donations. Figure1: Google and its CSR (Source: careers.google.com.2016) Many of the offices have on site fitness centers and kitchens providing the employees with healthy meals and boost them up for the work all throughout the day(Youngs et al., 2015). It is basically the function within an organization focusing on the recruitment, management and for providing the direction for the people who are working in the organization. They are mainly in charge of finding, conducting the interviews, recruiting and training the employees and also advertising the employee benefit programs. There four different stages of HR development in Australia. They are the welfare state, the welfare and administration stage and the human resource management and strategic human resource management stage which is followed by the final stage that of the SHRM into the future. Welfare stage It was a time when Australia had a stable economy and society and the trade unions were also very active, ideas of job design and scientific management. Prior to the Second World War, Personnel management was mainly used but the functions under this system were largely scattered and were often managed by the line managers (Bonevski et al.,2014). Welfare and administration stage The drawbacks of the welfare stage led to the formation of this stage where efforts were made to make the functions much more organized. But on the other hand, there was the scarcity of labor which led to poor performance ( Corbire et al.,2015). A large number of welfare services for the employees were introduced and there was also a rise in the structure of the pay scale. HRM and SHRM Dimensions Personnel management HRM Philosophy Employees are made for rules and regulations Rules and regulations are meant for employees Nature Confined to procurement and training of personnel Also integrated with corporate management Communication Slow and downward Fast and both upward and downward Decision making Slow Fast Approach Work oriented Welfare of People and also work oriented Job design Division of labor Team work Managements role Transactional Transformational Level of trust Low High Figure3: distinction between HRM and Personnel management (Source: Author) Present and future of HRM There are new methods of globalization and technology which also in initiates new emphasis on performance and human capital. Figure4: HRM model (Source: www.scribd.com.2016) The new HRM Model The key features of this model led more emphasis on employee commitment rather than compliance with the rules. The employees must be very carefully recruited that is the right person for the right job. Managing the work culture is much more important than managing the procedures and system, which is evident from the fact that Google being such a gigantic business house pays maximum importance on the happiness and satisfaction of its employees and not on money making only (Baert et al.,2016). Resource dependency theory It mainly is concerned about the scarcity of the resources of organizations. It seeks to find ways of how to compete effectively while maintaining high standards of employment practice. Individualistic society is one, where people are much more inclined towards living alone rather than in families as a result of which the need for the job is also increasing. (Vossen van Gestel, 2015). As there is a decline of trade unionism there is an increased need for individual consultation mechanism. There is the need for honesty and fairness in all activities. Strategic recruitment The strategy for the recruitment must be planned and targeted towards the right person, not all the posts in a company are strategic, strategic recruitment is useful for hiring the right person for the right job ( Evans-Lacko Knapp, 2014). This process is used for the hiring of the employees for those particular job positions which are needed for the accelerated growth of the company (Pit et al.,2014). It is different from the commonly used method of recruitment and strategic method of recruitment is generally used in order to react to the changing market trends (Jain Bhatt, 2015). This method of hiring is way too expensive and cannot be used all throughout the year. The HR has to act independently and set the priorities right. Employment branding Google is very much well known as an employer (Ruchika Prasad, 2017). It is perhaps because this company does not only believe in hiring people based on their grades and their academic brilliance, rather it believes in recruiting people based on their capabilities of innovativeness and their uniqueness ( Bock et a., 2014). Google treats their employees as intelligent adults (Leekha Chhabra Sharma, 2014). Google also allows ten of their engineers their full freedom to create and to carry on their experiments and to bring some sort of innovations in the work of the entire business. Challenges faced There are several problems that the recruiters are facing nowadays ( Barsoum, 2015). There is a constantly increasing pressure to meet the objectives efficiently and effectively. There is the pressure for increasing the flexibility of the business environment. There is a vast competition existing on a global scale. Identification of issues faced during the time of recruitment The problem that the company faces mostly during the time of recruitment is also because of the homogeneous nature that it has imbibed its work culture. It is not always prudent to think that the employees will fit to a particular mode. It prevents the company from bringing any significant changes within the existing work flow. It carries on the same monotonous methods of working and prevents the employees from taking any risks and this in turn also prevents innovation. It makes it tough for the company to think differently or think out of the box and bring new innovations. As a result of which, they also fail to respond to the changing market trends. It is necessary for the company to open more opportunities and arenas for the employees. Retaining the fabulous young talents often becomes a major problem. The company has to keep a sharp eye upon the activities of each worker whether they are working at optimum level and with their maximum potential to drive the company forward. Google might offer a huge amount of money in order to retain employees so that they do not switch company but Google has to realize that money is not the ultimate thing, as the companies evolve, the workforce needs to evolve too. Evidences There are also several evidences that show some of the severe problems existing in the recruitment process of Google. Don Dodge who was an employee of the Microsoft company at the post of a startup evangelist, thought of changing team and while being recruited at Google, he had to face some problems like even after having twenty years of experience, he was asked for his degrees, SAT scores. Google is poaching employees and trying to look for competitors. As a result of which, they are unable to bring newness and diversity in the workforce. In spite of trying a lot to create new products in several other markets, it is deriving its revenue from the same market only. The workforce is changing rapidly; the population in Australia ranging within the age group of 65 years is expected to exceed the age group of children between 0 to 14 years, which shows that the company must stop this practice of employee poaching and must allow the employees to switch job if they feel like. The companies can also use the method of mixed economy model as has been planned by the Government action, which initiates fair competition among the companies. There is an increasing need for recruitment form the economically backward groups and from women. Conclusion Thus, it is seen from this paper that Google is a unique company and follows several new and unique methods of recruitment. They often follow the modern and strategic methods of recruitment like strategic recruitment and employment branding. Unlike the other companies, it does not take part on any tiresome quest for money but they pay due attention to the satisfaction of their employees as well. Reference list Baert, S., De Pauw, A. S., Deschacht, N. (2016). Do employer preferences contribute to sticky floors?.ILR Review,69(3), 714-736. Barsoum, G. (2015). Striving for job security: The lived experience of employment informality among educated youth in Egypt.International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy,35(5/6), 340-358. Bock, D. E., Poole, S. M., Joseph, M. (2014). Does branding impact student recruitment: a critical evaluation.Journal of Marketing for Higher Education,24(1), 11-21. McDermid, F., Peters, K., Jackson, D., Daly, J. (2014). Conducting qualitative research in the context of pre-existing peer and collegial relationships.Nurse researcher,21(5), 28-33. Bonevski, B., Randell, M., Paul, C., Chapman, K., Twyman, L., Bryant, J., ... Hughes, C. (2014). Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups.BMC medical research methodology,14(1), 42. Corbire, M., Renard, M., St-Arnaud, L., Coutu, M. F., Negrini, A., Sauv, G., Lecomte, T. (2015). Union perceptions of factors related to the return to work of employees with depression.Journal of occupational rehabilitation,25(2), 335-347. Evans-Lacko, S., Knapp, M. (2014). Importance of social and cultural factors for attitudes, disclosure and time off work for depression: findings from a seven country European study on depression in the workplace.PLoS One,9(3), e91053. Jain, N., Bhatt, P. (2015). Employment preferences of job applicants: unfolding employer branding determinants.Journal of Management Development,34(6), 634-652. Jain, N., Bhatt, P. (2015). Employment preferences of job applicants: unfolding employer branding determinants.Journal of Management Development,34(6), 634-652. Leekha Chhabra, N., Sharma, S. (2014). Employer branding: the strategy for improving employer attractiveness. International Journal of Organizational Analysis,22(1), 48-60. Pit, S. W., Vo, T., Pyakurel, S. (2014). The effectiveness of recruitment strategies on general practitioners survey response ratesa systematic review.BMC medical research methodology,14(1), 76. Ratwani, R. M., Fairbanks, R. J., Hettinger, A. Z., Benda, N. C. (2015). Electronic health record usability: analysis of the user-centered design processes of eleven electronic health record vendors.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,22(6), 1179-1182. Ruchika, Prasad, A. (2017). Untapped Relationship between Employer Branding, Anticipatory Psychological Contract and Intent to Join.Global Business Review, 0972150917713897. Sabat, E. (2016). Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003.Google Scholar. Vossen, E., van Gestel, N. (2015). The activation logic in national sickness absence policies: Comparing the Netherlands, Denmark and Ireland.European Journal of Industrial Relations,21(2), 165-180. Youngs, P., Pogodzinski, B., Grogan, E., Perrone, F. (2015). Person-organization fit and research on instruction.Educational Researcher,44(1), 37-45.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
It generates a quarter of its annual revenues from products less than five years old. 3M started life as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company back in 1902. Its most successful product flexible sandpaper still forms an important part of its product line but this now comprises of over 60000 products that range from adhesive tapes to office supplies, medical supplies and equipment to traffic and safety signs, magnetic tapes and CDs to electrical equipment. Originally innovation was encouraged informally by the founders, but over more than a century some of these rules have been formalised. But most important of all there has built up a culture which encourages innovation. And because this culture has built up a history of success, it perpetuates itself. 3M started life selling a somewhat inferior quality of sandpaper. The only way they could do this was by getting close to the customer demonstrating it to the workmen that used it and persuading them to specify the product an early form of relationship selling. We will write a custom essay sample on The Stitch House or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This was the first strategic thrust of the fledgling business get close to the customer and understand their needs. However, the company was desperate to move away from selling a commodity product and competing primarily on price and its closeness to the customer led it to discover market opportunities that it had the expertise to capitalise on. The first such product was Three-M-IteÃ¢â ¢ Abrasive an abrasive cloth using aluminium oxide for durability in place of a natural abrasive. This was followed by waterproof sandpaper an idea bought from an inventor who subsequently came to work for 3M. This was followed shortly by WetordryÃ¢â ¢ a product designed for use by the car industry in finishing body-work. And with this the second strategic thrust of the company was developed to seek out niche markets, no matter how small, which would allow it to charge a premium price for its products. The company began to realise that many small niche markets could prove to be more profitable than a few large ones. In the 1990s this began to change somewhat to the extent that some technologies became more sophisticated and the investment needed to develop new products increased. Therefore the return required became larger and markets needed correspondingly bigger. Luckily the world was increasingly becoming a global market place. At the same time, competition was becoming tougher and the rapidity of technological change and shortening of product life cycles made 3M recognise the need to dominate any market niche quickly. Speed of response was vital. By the 1990s, many of the market niches 3M was pioneering were turning out to be not that small at all, particularly in the global market place. So, the approach remained the same, but the speed of response and size of market niche, world-wide, increased. Entrepreneurship and Small Business Paul Burns Case Studies in Entrepreneurship The company really started to diversify when it entered the tape market in the 1920s, but even this built on its expertise in coatings, backings and adhesives. What is more the way the first product evolved demonstrates perfectly how an entrepreneurial architecture works. By being close to its customers 3M saw a problem that it was able to solve for them through its technical expertise. In selling WetordryÃ¢â ¢ to carbody finishers, an employee realised how difficult it was for the painters to produce the latest fad in car painting two tone paintwork. The result was the development of masking tape imperfect at first, but developed over the years Ã¢â¬Ëout-of-hoursÃ¢â¬â¢ by an employee to what we know it to be today and from that technology developed the ScotchÃ¢â ¢ range of branded tapes. So, the third strategic thrust was developed having identified a market opportunity through closeness to the customer, diversify into these related areas. Once 3M found a niche product to offer in a new market, it soon developed other related products and developed a dominant position in the new market. In the 1990s 3M came to recognise that it did best when it introduced radically innovative products into a niche market in which it already had a toe hold. This experience also taught 3M the value of research but in particular to value maverick inventors who were so attached to their ideas that they would push them through despite the bureaucracy of the company. It was in the late 1920s that it developed the policy of allowing researchers to spend up to 15% of their time working on their own projects. To this day, it tries to make innovation part of the corporate culture by encouraging staff to spend 15% of their time working on pet ideas that they hope one day will become new products for the company. They can also get money to buy equipment and hire extra help. To get an idea accepted, they must first get the personal backing of a member of the main board. Then an interdisciplinary team of engineers, marketing specialists and accountants are set up to take the idea further. Failure is not punished, but success is well rewarded. Perhaps the best known contemporary example of the uccess of this policy is the development of the Post-ItÃ ® Note by Art Frye in the 1980s. He was looking for a way to mark places in a hymn book a paper marker that would stick, but not permanently. At the same time the company had developed a new glue which, unfortunately as it seemed at the time, would not dry. Art spotted a use for the product but what was different was the way he went about persuading his bosses to back the project. He produced the product, complete with its distinctive yellow colour, and distributed it to secretaries who started using it throughout 3M. Art then cut their supplies, insisting that there would be no more unless the company officially backed the product. The rest is history. So the fourth strategic thrust of the company was developed to pursue product development and innovation at every level in the organisation through research. This was formalised when the Central Research Laboratory was set up in 1937, but maverick research continued to be encouraged. In 1940, a New Product Department was developed to explore the viability of new products or technologies unrelated to existing ones. In 1943, a Product Fabrications Laboratory was set up to develop manufacturing processes. In the 1980s four Sector Labs were created with a view to being more responsive to the market place and undertaking medium-term research (5-10 years); Industrial and Consumer, Life Sciences, Electronic and Information Technologies and Graphic Technologies. The Central Lab, renamed the Corporate Lab, was maintained to undertake more long-term research (over 10 years). In addition most of the Divisions had their own Labs undertaking short-term, developmental research (1-5 years). Entrepreneurship and Small Business Paul Burns Case Studies in Entrepreneurship 3M has always been admired for its ability to share knowledge across the organisation and link technologies to produce numerous products that could be sold in different markets. One example of this is ScotchliteÃ¢â ¢ Reflective Sheeting used for road signs, developed in the 1940s in fact as a result of failed research to develop reflective road markings. This combined research from three different laboratories to produce signs with a waterproof base onto which a covering of an opaque, lightreflecting pigment was added followed by microscopic beads. This was all sealed with a thin coat of plastic to ensure weather durability. Strategy five had emerged get different parts of the organisation to communicate and work together and, most important of all, share knowledge. This became formalised in the 1950s with the establishment of the Technical Forum, established with the aim of sharing knowledge across the company. It held annual shows. Out of this came the Technical Council, made up of technical directors and technical personnel, which met several times a year to review research and address common problems. Alongside this the Manufacturing Council and then the Marketing Council were established. At the same time Technical Directors and researchers regularly moved around the different divisions. The fifth strategy was in place share knowledge. The culture in 3M evolved out of its place of origin and has been called Ã¢â¬ËMinnesota niceÃ¢â¬â¢. It has been described as non-political, low ego, egalitarian and nonhierarchical as well as hardworking and self critical. It has also, at least in its earlier days, been described as paternalistic in its approach to employees. Above all, 3M is achievement orientated and achievement, particularly in research, was rewarded, often through promotion. For example successful new product teams were spun off to form new divisions. The leader of the team often became general manager of the new division and this was seen as a great motivator. Lesser achievements were also acknowledged. Researchers who consistently achieved Ã¢â¬Ëhigh standards of originality, dedication and integrity in the technical fieldÃ¢â¬â¢ as judged by their peers, not management were invited to join the exclusive Ã¢â¬ËCalton SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢. The Ã¢â¬ËGolden StepÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËPathfinderÃ¢â¬â¢ awards were also given to those helping develop successful new products. Achievement was lauded at all levels. Strategy six was emerging encourage achievement through reward. Today 3M face many challenges to maintaining its reputation for innovation. As it becomes larger and more complex, involved in different markets with different products and technologies, at different stages of their life cycle, it recognises that different managerial approaches may be necessary. The Ã¢â¬ËmaverickÃ¢â¬â¢, high risk approach to research and development may not be appropriate in certain sectors. The 25% rule the proportion of new product sales may not be achievable by all Divisions. 3M also faces stiffer competition which means that cost economies have had to be made to maintain profitability. As a result the 15% rule slack time to research new products is under sever pressure, to the point where it is described as more of an attitude rather than a reality. Nevertheless, 3M has for over a century successfully practised corporate entrepreneurship. Case questions: . Describe the organisational structures and devices 3M uses to encourage entrepreneurial activity. Why do they work? 2. How does 3M distinguish between incremental and fundamental innovations? Entrepreneurship and Small Business Paul Burns Case Studies in Entrepreneurship 3. Describe, as best you can from the case, the culture of the organisation. What does this depend upon? 4. Why has 3M been such a successful innovator for so long? 5. Can other companies just copy 3MÃ¢â¬â¢s structures and culture and become successful innovators also? Entrepreneurship and Small Business Paul Burns
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
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Sunday, March 1, 2020
Learn the French Verb Conjugations for Annoncer The French verb annoncerÃ should look very familiar because it means to announce. When conjugating it for use in the present, past, or future tenses, there is a slight spelling change that you need to know about. A quick French lesson will show you how to handle that with ease. Conjugating the French VerbÃ Annoncer AnnoncerÃ is aÃ spelling change verb. In this case, it is a minor change in the letter C as is common in many verbs that end in -cer. As you study the conjugations, you will notice that some formsÃ use the cedilla Ã §Ã rather than the normal c. This is to ensure that you pronounce it as a soft C sound even when it appears before the vowels A and O. Beyond that minor change, the verb conjugations forÃ annoncerÃ follow the standard -erÃ patterns. This chart demonstrates how the verb endings change depending on the subject pronoun and the tense used. For instance, I announce is jannonce and we will announce is nous annoncerons. Subject Present Future Imperfect j annonce annoncerai annonais tu annonces annonceras annonais il annonce annoncera annonait nous annonons annoncerons annoncions vous annoncez annoncerez annonciez ils annoncent annonceront annonaient What is the Present Participle ofÃ Annoncer? TheÃ present participleÃ of annoncerÃ isÃ annonÃ §ant. The simple ending change from an -erÃ to anÃ -antÃ is the difference. Again, though, notice that the cedilla appears with the vowel change. This tells you the ending is pronounced [sant] rather than [cant]. What is the Past Participle ofÃ Annoncer? The past participle ofÃ annoncerÃ isÃ annoncÃ ©. This is used to form the common past tense of the verb, which is known as theÃ passÃ © composÃ ©. You will also need to conjugate theÃ auxiliary verbÃ avoirÃ in order to complete this conjugation. For example, I announced is jai annoncÃ ©. The past participle does not change with the subject, so we announced is simply nous avons annoncÃ ©. More Conjugations ofÃ Annoncer You may find the need to use a few other simple conjugations ofÃ annoncerÃ at times. The subjunctive and conditional are more common and imply a level of uncertainty to the action of announcing. The passÃ © simple and imperfect subjunctive are primarily reserved for formal writing. While you might not need to memorize all of these forms at first, it is important to be aware of them. Most French students should concentrate on the present, future, and passÃ © composÃ © forms ofÃ annoncer. Subject Subjunctive Conditional Pass Simple Imperfect Subjunctive j annonce annoncerais annonai annonasse tu annonces annoncerais annonas annonasses il annonce annoncerait annona annont nous annoncions annoncerions annonmes annonassions vous annonciez annonceriez annontes annonassiez ils annoncent annonceraient annoncrent annonassent The imperative form ofÃ annoncerÃ may be useful if youre using it as an assertive and short command or request. When doing so, theres no need to include the subject pronoun: use annonce rather than tu annonce. Imperative (tu) annonce (nous) annonons (vous) annoncez
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The Contribution of Geriatric Health Services Research to Successful Aging - Essay Example The variables for the contributions of Geriatric Health Services Research include : changing care patterns to increase chances of successful; eliminating the iatrogenic consequences of medical care preservation of quality of their aging. Added to these, Owe and Kahn pointed out three components of health services and these are: the changing care patterns to gain chances of successful aging; and elimination of the iatrogenic consequences. On the other hand, measures of frailty, life satisfaction or quality of life, and Physical health are few of the successful aging variables. Several other factors may also be included, like substantial roles, physical and social-psychological environment. Moderator variables may also be added in the study, like evaluation of objective physical disability, subjective physical and mental health. Experimental designs by way of randomized trial and the quasi-experimental methods were needed. This step basically required closely examination of the participants as well as the personnel. Randomized trial and the quasi-experimental methods according to Gay (1999) are two of the strongest designs in providing empirical evidence. It is substantial in establishing the effects of the treatments used. ... 1. Chronic Illness Care 2. Use of Clinical Measures3 Evaluating the effects of this conjoint program; and The Contribution 2 4. Strengthen Geriatric Health Services Policies. Ho3: Geriatric Health Services Department has not attained the high level of "Successful Aging". Types of VariablesThe variables for the contributions of Geriatric Health Services Research include : changing care patterns to increase chances of successful; eliminating the iatrogenic consequences of medical care preservation of quality of their aging. Added to these, Owe and Kahn pointed out three components of health services and these are: the changing care patterns to gain chances of successful aging; and elimination of the iatrogenic consequences. On the other hand, measures of frailty, life satisfaction or quality of life, and Physical health are few of the successful aging variables. Several other factors may also be included, like substantial roles, physical and social-psychological environment. Moderator variables may also be added in the study, like evaluation of objective physical disability, subjective physical and mental health. Methods Used in the Study.Experimental designs by way of randomized trial and the quasi-experimental methods were needed. This step basically required closely examination of the participants as well as the personnel. Randomized trial and the quasi-experimental methods according to Gay (1999) are two of the strongest designs in providing empirical evidence. It is substantial in establishing the effects of the treatments used. It can control certain degree of biases brought about by differential failure or loss to follow-up, the inadequate of control over risk